quadraScope

Health ventures


My name is Fiona Miller (aka Fanny Mlinarsky). I am a high-tech entrepreneur. Since 1983 I’ve been working as a electronics design engineer, software developer, engineering manager, chief technology officer and executive. Along the way, I founded a couple of high tech companies, Azimuth Systems (VC funded) and octoScope (bootstrapped). octoScope was sold to Spirent in March of 2021, enabling me to do some venture investing. I fund rejuvenation technologies because as we all get older, the easiest way to stay healthy is to turn back the clock.

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Below are links to some of my published work and videos.

Videos

WI-Fi Now Interview

Interview with Spirent’s Fanny Mlinarsky: “Service providers drove the need for Wi-Fi testing”


 



Patrick Mannion of ClariTek examines the octoBox personal testbed use case at Kyrio, the major wireless test lab in the US.
November 2017


This seminar took place on October 19th, 2017 at the octoScope San Jose office. We cover the evolution of mesh technologies, including 802.11s, Nest/ZigBee and Bluetooth. We discuss today’s common 3-node mesh architectures for Wi-Fi and examine the typical performance of the products on the market.
October 2017



octoScope's iGen Interference Generator
November 2016


octoBox Wireless Testbed Overview
May 2016



octoBox Roaming Testbed
December 2015


Farpoint Group looks at the octoBox
September 2014


See all octoScope videos on the YouTube channel.

Articles

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Optimizing Wi-Fi Device Adaptability to High-Interference Environments
One of the more challenging issues facing Wi-Fi equipment suppliers today is that devices are unable to adapt well to high interference in an open air environment. Consequently, they do not provide optimum throughput at all times, with results that frustrate end users. Manufacturers try to make improvements, but often cannot accurately replicate problematic scenarios in their test labs. A promising test solution is… View article PDF

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Wi-Fi World Summit: Seamless Wi-Fi Is Coming
Three wireless technology events came together in Barcelona. The goal: develop a network where your phone will automatically switch to Wi-Fi when you're indoors.… view article PDF or view article URL

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Measure throughput of cellular and Wi-Fi MIMO radios
As cellular and Wi-Fi systems move from single to multiple wireless signals, handsets and the chipsets that go inside them need testing. Because of the multiple signals in a MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) system, testing handsets using a wired connection doesn’t emulate the needed test conditions. view course PDF or Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

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Test MIMO Wi-Fi and LTE radios over the air
Radio technologies such as IEEE 802.11 and 3GPP (3rd generation partnership project) LTE rely on MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) techniques to increase the range and data rates of radio transmissions. Using digital-signal processing, MIMO radios sense the conditions in the channel on a packet-by-packet basis and make instantaneous decisions on whether to employ 802.11 or LTE techniques. view article PDF or view article URL

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Testing modern MIMO Wi-Fi and LTE radios
MODERN RADIO TECHNOLOGIES such as the IEEE 802.11 and 3GPP (3rd generation partnership project) LTE (long term evolution) rely on MIMO (multiple input multiple output) techniques to increase the radio transmission range and speed. MIMO algorithms use multiple synchronized radios (up to 4 for 802.11n and LTE; up to 8 for the emerging 802;11ac) to adapt to continuously changing conditions in the wireless channel. .pdf

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Multimode vector radio dismantles barriers to SDR software portability
In the age of diverse and unsettled wireless standards, the market needs flexible multiprotocol radios for handsets and basestations. These radios must be instantly self-configurable to roam from traditional GSM and CDMA networks to the expanding UMTS and LTE areas of coverage. view article URL

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Multimode wireless devices: It’s the software, stupid!
Since the dawn of cellular communications in the mid-seventies, the industry has advanced through three generations of radio standards and is about to launch 4G. New wireless technologies continue to emerge while the old ones linger, forcing wireless equipment, both phones and base stations, to support multiple radio interfaces where interoperability is required. view article .pdf

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Rethinking portable power specs for 'YouTube minutes'
Handset manufacturers have yet to specify "projector minutes" or "YouTube minutes." But yesterday's "talk time" and "standby time" specs are inadequate for today's multimedia world, and the industry knows it. The truth is, our 10-year-old lithium-ion battery technology can only provide a few hours of life to modern applications. Manufacturers and carriers are trying to hide this inadequate performance behind obscure specifications based on usage profiles. view article .pdf or view article URL

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Sharing TV spectrum may require cognitive radio technology
In the early days of broadcast TV, the world was analog and spectrum was plentiful. Spectrum sharing was unnecessary and, indeed, hadn't even been invented. Dedicated spectrum was allocated to each TV channel and later, 202 wireless microphones were permitted to operate in unused channels (FCC part 74). view article .pdf or view article URL

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Wireless HD video: Raising the UWB throughput bar (again)
This article reviews the promise and technical challenges facing UWB, reports on the most recent test results, and analyzes a particular approach to UWB. It also discusses the throughput and encryption considerations for HD video distribution. view article .pdf

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Comprehensive UWB tests give video a green light but caution on wireless USB
With 22 UWB based Wireless-USB products being certified, it’s time to evaluate UWB technology. While most WiMedia Alliance entries ran at less than 10% of the 480 Mbits/s PHY rate over short distances, Pulse-LINK’s CWave technology was fast enough for multiple HD video streams over good distances. view article .pdf

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Will 802.11n be a good neighbor?
On June 25, the Wi-Fi Alliance (www.wi-fi.org) officially started its 802.11n draft 2.0 certification, and products from 14 vendors (and counting) are now certified. But will these new products work well side-by-side with their legacy counterparts? Can they be phased into the existing network gradually, or will 802.11n systems require exclusively 802.11n equipment? view article .pdf

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Report: Tests show 802.11n outperforming 802.11g
Wireless LAN systems based on draft-compliant IEEE 802.11n chipsets from four vendors are significantly outperforming 802.11g-based systems—although with notable variations between products. Since the Wi-Fi Alliance began certifying draft 802.11n products on June 25, the number of certified devices has been growing steadily and is now over 50. The Wi-Fi Alliance expects these products to interoperate and to deliver approximately twice the range and five times the throughput of legacy 802.11a/b/g networks. view .pdf

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Taming the Beast: 802.11n Coexistence with legacy networks
Since testing began on June 25 2007, the Wi-Fi Alliance has been certifying 802.11n draft 2.0 devices for interoperability and backwards compatibility. As of this writing, the number of certified products is 14 and counting. Will these devices disrupt legacy networks? Will 802.11n-based video streaming applications operating in the double-width 40 MHz channels squeeze out low data rate applications such as VoIP and remote control? view article .pdf

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Wi-Fi_channel_emulation_goes_mainstream
Given the complex behavior of MIMO/OFDM signals interacting with the environment, some form of channel emulation is essential in providing an adequate picture of performance. view article .pdf

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Testing 802.11n
Wireless LAN (WLAN) throughput advancements introduced by the emerging IEEE 802.11n standard come at the price of unprecedented technological complexity. This creates an immediate need for sophisticated test systems that can help manufacturers and service providers bring robust, well tested products to market. Although the final standard will not be published until mid-2009, draft 2.0 is now mature enough that companies such as Intel, Broadcom, Atheros, Marvell, and Qualcomm have already released 802.11n chipsets that will require only software changes in order to comply with the final standard. view article .pdf

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802.11n: The next generation in Wireless LAN technology
MIMO is the key for high-throughput wireless networking. view article .pdf

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The challenges and importance of testing mesh networks prior to deployment
Despite the rapid growth of wireless mesh networking technology as the primary infrastructure for several broadband services, including wide-area voice and data transmission, the industry lacks an established process for testing wireless mesh networks. And, without thorough testing, mesh networks cannot be deployed on a large scale. Consequently, pre-deployment testing that automates the performance testing of wireless mesh networks in a controlled laboratory environment is required to establish its credibility for mission-critical metro-area network applications. view article .pdf

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How will 802.11T help test Wi-Fi?
Buyers of Wi-Fi equipment and systems must be assured that all products have the performance and stability to carry mission-critical applications and data. However, testing of Wi-Fi, or 802.11, devices and systems for performance and stability is a challenge for the industry because of the complexity of the 802.11 protocol. That is compounded by the inherent mobility of the wireless devices and the prevalence of radio frequency interference. view article .pdf

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New standard to bring broadband video over Wi-Fi to conferencing market
Simple connectivity has helped make IEEE 802.11-based Wi-Fi the network technology of choice where data cabling is scarce. No longer tethered to a desk, you can browse the Net or collaborate with colleagues from anywhere there is a Wi-Fi signal. Could the next step in corporate conferencing be broadband video over Wi-Fi?

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Cellular or WiFi
As the adage goes: “The good thing about standards is that there are so many of them.” Does the world need yet another one? Yes—to converge a few of the existing ones. Convergence of Wi-Fi and cell technologies in a single handset will enable pervasive access to voice and data indoors and out with one standard, one network, and one device. view article URL

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Metrics And Methods Bring VoWLAN Success
Mobile phones have been a runaway success for two decades. Over the years, however, the cellular market has stabilized. Can Wi-Fi give the cell-phone industry a boost? The IEEE 802.11- based Wi-Fi data-networking technology has penetrated the small-office/home-office (SOHO) market. Now, it is expanding rapidly into the enterprise and public-access markets. Wi-Fi is well suited to carry packetized voice, such as Voice over IP. It also can offer cellular users better indoor coverage at a lower cost

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Wi-Fi Testing Using a Cabled RF Environment
As Wi-Fi technology matures, wireless LANs are moving from the relatively tolerant SOHO market to the demanding enterprise — a market where high network performance is needed to support mission-critical applications, a large number of network users, and a diversity of network elements. Enterprise IT managers need accurate performance data on wireless systems to ensure the interoperability, functionality, and performance of the wireless infrastructure. Testing of wireless access points, clients, and networks is critical to developing WLANs hardy enough for enterprise adoption. Yet WLAN testing is often conducted in unstable environments where it is impossible to ensure the repeatability and reliability of test outcomes. The result is a testing process that is costly and unreliable. view article URL

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Wi-Fi Metrics
The IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technology, commonly known as Wi-Fi, has been steadily gaining popularity, keeping users on the go productively connected at airports, in hotels, and even in front of living room TV sets. Most of us who have experienced the freedom and flexibility of wireless connectivity have no wish to return to tethered networking. So far, wireless networking has been largely confined to the airport, hotel, coffee-shop, and small-office home-office (SOHO) markets, where performance is less important than cost. The new target for the wireless industry is the lucrative enterprise market, but those of us who yearn for 802.11 to take hold in the enterprise have to wait until the technology proves itself sufficiently robust and ready to carry demanding mission-critical applications. In enterprises, network performance impacts productivity, and IT executives won’t make the decision to deploy 802.11 lightly.

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Broadband 101: Installation and Testing
Today the Internet is an information superhighway with bottlenecks at every exit. These congested exits call for the deployment of broadband access to the homes and businesses. Broadband technology lets you watch TV (video), browse the Internet via a high-speed connection (data) and use the phone (voice) simultaneously. Broadband access means support for data, voice and video services over a single cable with an “always-on” connection. view article .pdf

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Fiber Optic Gigabit Transmission and Field Testing Issues
Today’s fiber optic installations are fast increasing in number and in bandwidth to alleviate the throughput bottlenecks on the backbone networks where traffic from multiple workstations aggregates. This article examines the latest developments in high speed Ethernet transmission over fiber optic media and discusses the new field testing issues associated with these emerging standards. view article .pdf

Whitepapers

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802.11 MCS and Data Rate Calculator
An Excel spreadsheet with a few adjustable variables: Enter the conditions and find the minimum expected MCS and data rate. get this Excel spreadsheet

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Throughput Test Methods For Mimo Radios: Achieving high throughput and repeatable results
This paper discusses the challenges and methods of achieving maximum MIMO throughput and repeatable measurements over a wide dynamic range and under a variety of wireless channel conditions. It focuses on MIMO over the air (OTA) test methods. get this whitepaper

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HOW DO MIMO RADIOS WORK? - Adaptability of Modern 802.11 and LTE Technology
New generation Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) 802.11n/ac radios have more complex adaptation algorithms than legacy Single Input Single Output (SISO) 802.11a/b/g devices. While SISO devices only vary modulation, 802.11n/ac radios work with a more complex Modulation Coding Scheme (MCS). An MCS includes the following variables: modulation, coding rate, GI, channel width and the number of spatial streams.… download this whitepaper

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MIMO Data Rate Computation
A concise useful summary: Spreadsheet providing 802.11n/ac data rate computation for each standard Modulation Coding Scheme (MCS) get this whitepaper (registration required)

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Wireless Technology Assessment for Automotive Applications
Recently, automotive safety applications with wireless communications have been the focus of worldwide research and development. DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) in particular, with its low latency vehicle-to-vehicle connectivity, now appears to be a promising wireless technology for time-sensitive crash avoidance applications. download this whitepaper

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IEEE 802 Wireless Summary – Amendments under Development
Three (3) pages of status updates. download this whitepaper

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Wireless Technology Assessment for Automotive Application
In this paper, we first examine major automotive applications, including emerging applications, and then discuss wireless technologies and standards best suited to support these applications. download this whitepaper

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MIMO/OTA Test Methodology Consideration for Small Anechoic Chambers
Single-cluster MIMO/OTA measurements can be accommodated by small anechoic chambers that are modestly priced and have minimal space requirements. This contribution explores geometry requirements pertinent to single cluster measurements per TR 37.976. download this whitepaper

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IEEE 802 Wireless Summary – Amendments under Development
A concise, useful summary. get this whitepaper (registration required)

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Software-based MIMO Channel Emulator
Fox is a software based channel emulator that models a wireless channel with up to 4x4 MIMO paths. While currently supporting 802.11n channel models, Fox can be extended to incorporate other channel models, including LTE and a variety of military or proprietary models. Fox works on MIMO streams of IQ samples and operates in the National Instruments LabVIEW application development and graphical programming environment. Fox takes as input a sampled 802.11n baseband signal stored in a file, mathematically applies 802.11n channel models and other distortion to this signal and outputs the resulting signal to a file. view whitepaper .pdf

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Open Spectrum: New Standards Big Prospects
At the turn of the 20th century spectrum was, much like the Wild West, unregulated and free, but things have changed. Dramatic advances in wireless technology have spurned elaborate regulations from the FCC and its international counterparts. But spectrum regulations have traditionally lagged the evolving needs of the wireless world. TV broadcasting, the dominant wireless technology of its time, gave way to cellular and wireless broadband communications. And now the FCC regulations designed for the broadcasting age must evolve to meet the needs of mobile users. view whitepaper URL

UWB Test Report
Comprehensive UWB tests give video a green light but caution on wireless USB
With 22 UWB based Wireless-USB products being certified, it’s time to evaluate UWB technology. While most WiMedia Alliance entries ran at less than 10% of the 480 Mbits/s PHY rate over short distances, Pulse-LINK’s CWave technology was fast enough for multiple HD video streams over good distances. view whitepaper .pdf

802.11n draft 2.0
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ 802.11n draft 2.0: Longer-Range, Faster-Throughput, Multimedia-Grade Wi-Fi® Networks
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 802.11n draft 2.0 is a certification program for products based upon the IEEE draft 2.0 802.11n specification. At this writing, the final 802.11n amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard is expected to be released in the second half of 2008. 802.11n is a major next step in the evolution of WLAN technology and represents more than just a new physical layer.

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Test Strategies for 802.11n MIMO Devices
True to the trend of ever-increasing data rates, the new IEEE 802.11n WLAN (Wireless LAN) transmission technology based on MIMO (Multiple Inputs/Multiple Outputs) guarantees throughput of at least 100 Mbps but can deliver up to 600 Mbps depending on the complexity of the 802.11n radio and on the environment. MIMO is a highly innovative advancement in wireless data transmission. It turns the long-time nemesis of wireless – multipath – into a friend. Multipath is a common occurrence indoors where the wireless signal reflects from surfaces thus creating multiple signals that add together in the air. While today’s 802.11 a/b/g radios struggle to separate the original signal from this muddle, the MIMO radio actually takes advantage of multipath to send multiple data streams via the available paths. get this whitepaper (registration required)

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IEEE802.11T – WLAN Test Methods and Metrics
Until now the surge of wireless networking has been largely confined to the SOHO market, where performance has taken a second place to cost. The new applications for the WLAN industry are voice and video services that depend on performance. Formally defining performance test methods and metrics is a timely and important undertaking. Proper testing will shine the light on performance issues and will help the WLAN industry to expand into the emerging cellular and streaming video markets. download this whitepaper

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Quality Metrics for Network Services
Year after year enterprises make significant investments to improve the quality of network services either through faster equipment or through more efficient protocols. Yet, the networking industry still does not have any objective metrics for Quality of Service (QoS). Different industry sectors have their own definitions of quality. QoS is defined in three different unrelated ways at the Ethernet layer, at the IP layer and for the ATM networks. These disparate definitions of quality confuse the market and offer no objective metrics of acceptable quality. download this whitepaper

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Level III Tester Accuracy
Field testers certifying category 6 installations must conform to the Level III accuracy specifications defined by TIA and ISO. When you invest time and money into the certification job you want to be sure that the certification work is valid. The best way to ensure certification validity is to use a tester that is independently verified to meet Level III. The Agilent WireScope 350 has been independently verified by ETL to meet all Level III requirements in both the Permanent Link and Channel configurations. This white paper explains what Level III accuracy is and shows the independent verification test results for the WireScope 350. download this whitepaper

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The Monster Cords
Does our industry need bulky and expensive Permanent Link test cords and complex field calibration procedures to support Category 6 testing? Does a monster cord provide better measurement repeatability or longer life? This paper demonstrates that the answer to both questions is no. download this whitepaper

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Fiber Optic Test Issues – What to Measure and Why?
Fiber optic networking applications, such as Gigabit Ethernet, the emerging 10 Gigabit Ethernet and Storage Area Networks (SANs) are focusing much of the industry’s attention on the need to properly evaluate fiber optic installations. Today there is no simple standards-based test method to assure that the installed cabling can support new fiber optic applications. download this whitepaper

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Understanding FEXT and ELFEXT
Far end crosstalk is a source of noise for twisted pair networks that use more than one pair for transmission. It is important to qualify far end crosstalk on the cabling used for running gigabit Ethernet. download this whitepaper

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Category 6 – The Ultimate Challenge
Life was easy back in the category 5 days, although many of us did not think so back then. Today, faced with the challenges of category 6, all of us can appreciate the good old days. Why is certifying category 6 so much harder than certifying category 5? The simple answer is – the test limits got significantly stricter but the cabling technology is still catching up to these limits. The result? High failure rate on category 6 installations. download this whitepaper

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10 Gigabit Ethernet Field Testing Issues
Today’s fiber optic installations are fast increasing in number and in bandwidth to alleviate the throughput bottlenecks on the backbone networks where traffic from multiple workstations aggregates. This article examines the latest developments in high speed Ethernet transmission over fiber optic media and discusses the new field testing issues associated with these emerging standards. download this whitepaper

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Gigabit Transmission − What’s the Limit?
As Local Area Networking (LAN) technology advances into the realm of gigabit transmission, cabling infrastructure is evolving to address the new physical layer requirements of the new networks. This paper examines the signaling environment pertaining to the new generation gigabit transmission over twisted pair and fiber optic cabling and discusses methods of measuring the headroom of network applications in the field. download this whitepaper

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Cable Analysis-Extracting Information from Measured Data
Every cable tells a story. Cable certification measurements can be presented as a string of numbers or as a series of plots. Most of us are not good at reading numbers. It is much easier to interpret graphical information. This paper explains how to extract information from certification plots and talks about the importance of preserving plot data for future analysis. download this whitepaper

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Understanding the Dynamic Range Requirements for Far End Crosstalk Measurements
This paper examines the requirements for instrument dynamic range when performing field certification of ELFEXT per TSB95, "Additional Transmission Performance Guidelines for 100 Ω 4-Pair Category 5 Cabling " and TIA-568-A-A5, "Additional Transmission Performance Specifications for 4-Pair 100 Ω Enhanced Category 5 Cabling". download this whitepaper

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Gigabit Ethernet Over Category 5
The twisted pair gigabit Ethernet standard – 1000Base-T – is under development by the IEEE P802.3ab task force and is expected to be ratified in the first half of 1999. The work on this standard started in the latter half of 1996. In September 1997, after a year of debate, the IEEE P802.3ab task force selected the Enhanced TX/T2 line code for implementing 1000Base-T. The name – Enhanced TX/T2 – was chosen because this signaling scheme has inherited the symbol rate and spectrum of 100Base-TX and is based on the line code used by 100Base-T21. view article .pdf

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The Inter-standard Gap
In an ideal world the networking and the cabling standards would be inter-operable. The IEEE, ANSI and The ATM-Forum standards committees developing new networking standards could simply specify a cable plant compliant with TIA-568-A[1] or ISO11801[2]. This kind of cooperative arrangement among the standards organizations could eliminate the redundancy of standardization effort and the duplication of work. But when dealing with the enormous complexity of data communications, can we honestly believe that a jump from 10 to 100 Mb/s will happen flawlessly and quickly, just as the standards dictate? Has any significant advancement in networking technology ever occurred without inter-operability issues? This paper provides an overview of the emerging 100 Mb/s Local Area Networking (LAN) applications − their physical layer needs and specifications. It examines how well the generic cabling standards such as TIA-568-A[1] and ISO11801[2] address the requirements of the emerging high speed LANs and demonstrates some gaps between the ideal world and the reality today. How close are we to our goal of standards interoperability? Can the industry standards ever catch up with the accelerating pace of advancements in the data communications industry? Before we attempt to answer these questions, let’s examine the facts. view article .pdf

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The ATM Controversy
The question of whether the 155 Mb/s ATM interface is properly supported by category 5 cabling has been a topic of some disagreement. Unfortunately for the end user of ATM, the importance of the channel bandwidth above 100 MHz has, on occasion, been misrepresented so as to promote systems and test equipment unspecified above 100 MHz. Category 5, as specified, does not satisfy the requirements of the 155 Mb/s ATM network This fact is supported by theoretical analysis and by experiment1. However, in the interest of allowing the existing standards to become established, the physical layer requirements of this network have sometimes been presented from the “best case” perspective. This paper analyzes the channel bandwidth requirements of a few widely used 155 Mb/s ATM products in the context of the best and worst case conditions defined by the ATM Forum AF-PHY-0015.000 and TIA- 568 standards and demonstrates that typical ATM products rely on the channel bandwidth beyond 100 MHz for proper operation. download this whitepaper

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Analysis of Physical Layer Requirements for 155 Mb/s Twisted Pair ATM
This paper analyzes the physical layer operation of 155 Mb/s twisted pair ATM equipment, presenting a detailed examination of channel bandwidth utilization and the performance trade-offs inherent in various bandwidth limiting techniques. The data and analysis developed here support the conclusion that in order to meet the required Bit Error Rate of 10-10, the 155 Mb/s ATM application relies on the channel frequency response beyond the 100 MHz band specified by category 5. download this whitepaper

Presentations

2017

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Exponential Complexity of Wireless Test
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2016

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Introduction to Wireless Test Metrics
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2014

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Throughput Test Methods for MIMO Radios
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2013

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MIMO-OTA in a Small Anechoic Chamber
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DSRC Evaluation under Controlled Environment
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2012

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Everything you need to know about LTE
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On-line course: Testing Wireless Devices & Systems
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On-line course: Fundamentals of Wireless
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Next-Generation Mobile Technologies
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2011

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Tutorial: 700 MHz Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network
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4G Broadband: what you need to know about LTE
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The Evolving Standards
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Over the Air Wireless Test Methods and Metrics
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The Role of White Spaces in the Realm of Wireless Broadband
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Off the Hook: Advances in Wireless LAN Technologies
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2010

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Software-based MIMO Channel Emulator
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Wireless Technologies for the Enterprise
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White Spaces Regulations and Standards
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2009

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Utilizing White Spaces for broadband access
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White Spaces Regulations and Standards
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LTE Physical Layer Fundamentals and Test Requirements
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Making Sense of Mobile Broadband
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Testing 4G Ahead of the Curve
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White Space Strategies
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Wireless Tutorial: The IEEE’s Wireless Ethernet Keeps Going and Growing
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The Road to 4G Wireless
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Green Wireless Systems
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Broadband Wireless Puzzle: Fitting the Pieces Together
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Wireless Tutorials
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2008

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Future Directions: Advanced Wireless Technologies
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Advanced Wireless & Mobile Technologies
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2007

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Femtocell Workshops
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Advances in Wireless Networking
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Wireless Mesh Technologies and Performance Evaluation
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IEEE 802 Wireless Workshop
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A Glimpse at the Wireless Data Communications Standards
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From the Labs: Wireless and Mobility Track
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Wireless Mesh Networks Performance
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Testing Requirements for Successful WiMAX Deployment
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2001

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Beyond the Physical Layer: Network Performance 101
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2000 and earlier

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10 Gigabit Ethernet Transmission and Field Testing
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LAN Technology Trends
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TIA, ISO/IEC, IEEE Standards Update
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Challenges of Meeting Category 6 In The Field
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Cable Analysis - Extracting Information from Measured Data
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Gigabit Transmission - What’s the Limit?
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Gigabit Ethernet Over Category 5
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Physical Layer Requirements For 155 Mb/s Twisted Pair ATM
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The Inter-standard Gap
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Cabling Systems for Next Generation Networking
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Seminars

MIMO Radio Technology

Wireless for Miniaturized Consumer Electronics